Learn Tulu Grammar – Parts of Speech

There are five principal parts of speech in Tulu viz: Nouns, Pronouns, Numerals, Verbs and Particles.

Nouns – ನಾಮಪದ

A noun is a part of speech that denotes a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. The English word noun has its roots in the Latin word “Nomen”, which means “Name”. They tell us what we are talking about. The words cat, Jack, rock, Africa, & it are nouns. Nouns answer the questions “What is it?” and “Who is it?” They give names to things, people, and places. Every language has words that are nouns. Nouns are of three kinds, viz: Substantive, Adjective, and Adverbial.

Examples of Nouns(ನಾಮಪದ) in Tulu and Kannada

 NOUN ENGLISHNOUN KANNADANOUN in TULU (ENGLISH TRANSLITERATION)NOUN in TULU (KANNADA TRANSLITERATION)
1Beautyಅಂದ or ಸೊಬಗುporluಪೊರ್ಲು
2Bicycleಸೈಕಲ್cycalಸೈಕಲ್
3Boyಗಂಡುaanಆನ್
4Dogನಾಯಿnaayiನಾಯಿ
5Fatherಅಪ್ಪammeಅಮ್ಮೆ
6Girlಹೆಣ್ಣುponnuಪೊಣ್ಣು
7Houseಮನೆilla or illಇಲ್ಲ or ಇಲ್ಲ್
8IndiaಭಾರತBharathoಭಾರತೋ
9Jackಜ್ಯಾಕ್Jackಜ್ಯಾಕ್
10Lightಬೆಳಕುbolpuಬೊಲ್ಪು
11MaryಮೇರೀMaryಮೇರೀ
12Motherಅಮ್ಮappaeಅಪ್ಪೆ
13Riverನದಿsudae or thudaeಸುದೆ or ತುದೆ
14Schoolಶಾಲೆsaaleಸಾಲೆ
15Seaಸಾಗರ or ಸಮುದ್ರ or ಕಡಲುkaDalಕಡಲ್
16Timeಸಮಯporthuಪೋರ್ತು
17Treeಮರmaraಮರ
18Villageಹಳ್ಳಿ or ಊರುooruಊರು
19Workಕೆಲಸ or ಉದ್ಯೋಗkelasa or bElaeಕೆಲಸ or ಬೇಲೆ
20Worldಪ್ರಪಂಚprapanchoಪ್ರಪಂಚೋ

Substantives

A. Gender of Substantives
Substantives are of three Genders. 1. Masculine(ಪುಲ್ಲಿಂಗ) 2. Feminine(ಸ್ತ್ರೀಲಿಂಗ) and 3. Neuter(ನಪುಂಸಕಲಿಂಗ) and two numbers(ವಚನ); 1. Singular(ಏಕವಚನ) and 2. Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)

1. Masculine Nouns – ಪುಲ್ಲಿಂಗ:
The names of men and gods are Masculine and nouns of male relationship.
The word ಆಣ್ – aanu : male is often prefixed to show the male sex
The word ಆಣ್ ಬಾಲೆ – aanubaale : a male infant or a male child
The word ಆಣ್ಪಿಲಿ – (ವ್ಯಾಘ್ರ;ಹುಲಿ in Kannada) aanupili : a tiger

There are some exceptions to the above rule. Baale, a child, is generally and jana, a person or people,
frequently Neuter. For example:
1. ಬಾಲೆ (ಮಗು;ಶಿಶುin Kannada) – bale puttundu, a child is born.
2. ಜನ – jana battundu, the people have come.

2. Feminine Nouns – ಸ್ತ್ರೀಲಿಂಗ:
All the female names, goddesses and nouns of female relationship.

3. Neuter Nouns – ನಪುಂಸಕಲಿಂಗ:
All other nouns like objects or names of animals, birds, trees, fruits, places, things etc.

Examples of Nouns(ನಾಮಪದ) in Tulu and Kannada with Three Genders(ಲಿಂಗ)

Masculine ExamplesEnglish TranliterationMasculine Nouns (ಪುಲ್ಲಿಂಗ) in KannadaMasculine Nouns (ಪುಲ್ಲಿಂಗ) in TuluFeminine ExamplesEnglish TranliterationFeminine Nouns (ಸ್ತ್ರೀಲಿಂಗ) in KannadaFeminine Nouns (ಸ್ತ್ರೀಲಿಂಗ) in TuluNeuter ExamplesNeuter Nouns (ನಪುಂಸಕಲಿಂಗ) in KannadaNeuter Nouns (ನಪುಂಸಕಲಿಂಗ) in Tulu
RamaraameರಾಮರಾಮೆSithaseethaಸೀತೆಸೀತChildಮಗುಬಾಲೆ
BhimabheemeಭೀಮಭೀಮೆDroupadidroupadiದ್ರೌಪದಿದ್ರೌಪದಿVillageಹಳ್ಳಿಊರು
SundarasundareಸುಂದರಸುಂದರೆSundarisundariಸುಂದರಿಸುಂದರಿForestಕಾಡುಕಾಡ್
Fatherammaeಅಪ್ಪಅಮ್ಮೆMotherappaeಅಮ್ಮಅಪ್ಪೆTigerಹುಲಿಪಿಲಿ
Boyaanಗಂಡುಆನ್Girlponnuಹೆಣ್ಣುಪೊಣ್ಣುDogನಾಯಿನಾಯಿ
Elder Brotherpalayeಅಣ್ಣಪಲಯೆElder Sisterpaliಅಕ್ಕಪಲಿCrowಕಾಗೆಕಕ್ಕೆ
Younger Brothermeggaeತಮ್ಮಮೆಗ್ಗೆYounger SitermegDiತಂಗಿಮೆಗ್ಡಿFlowerಹೂವುಪೂ
SonmageಮಗಮಗೆDaughtermagalಮಗಳುಮಗಲ್Mangaloreಮಂಗಳೂರುಕುಡ್ಲ (Mangalore is called Kudla in Tulu)
Son in Lawmarmaayeಅಳಿಯಮರ್ಮಾಯೆDaugher in Lawmarmaalಸೊಸೆಮರ್ಮಾಲ್Mangoಮಾವಿನಹಣ್ಣುಕುಕ್ಕು
Grand Fatherajja or ajjerಅಜ್ಜಅಜ್ಜ or ಅಜ್ಜೆರ್Grand Motherajjiಅಜ್ಜಿಅಜ್ಜಿSeaಸಮುದ್ರ or ಕಡಲುಕಡಲ್

More Examples of Neuter Nouns(ನಪುಂಸಕಲಿಂಗ)

ಜನ – jana – ಜನ – people
ಇಲ್ಲ್ – ill – ಮನೆ – house
ಸಾಲೆ – saale – ಶಾಲೆ – school

Examples of Nature:
ಸುದೆ – sudae – ಹೊಳೆ – river
ನೀರ್ – neer – ನೀರು – water
ಮರ – mara – ಮರ – tree
ಪೊಯ್ಯೆ – poyye – ಮರಳು – sand
ಕಲ್ಲ್ – kall – ಕಲ್ಲು – stone
ಮನ್ನ್ – mann – ಮಣ್ಣು – mud
ಕಡಲ್ – kadal – ಸಮುದ್ರ- sea

Examples of Animals:
ನಾಯಿ – naayi – ನಾಯಿ – dog
ಪೆತ್ತ – petta – ಹಸು – cow
ಎರು – eru – ಎತ್ತು – bull
ಪಿಲಿ – pili – ಹುಲಿ – tiger
ಪಂಜಿ – panji – ಹಂದಿ – pig
ಕುದ್ಕೆ – kudke – ನರಿ – jackel
ಮರಿ – mari – ನಾಗರಹಾವು – cobra
ಕುರಿ – kuri – ಕುರಿ – sheep

Examples of Birds/Fish/Snake:
ಪಕ್ಕಿ – pakki – ಹಕ್ಕಿ – bird
ಕೋರಿ – kori – ಕೋಳಿ – chicken
ಪುದ – puda – ಪಾರಿವಾಳ – pigeon
ಕಕ್ಕೆ – kakke – ಕಾಗೆ – crow
ಮೀನ್ – meen – ಮೀನು – fish
ಅಂಜಲ್ – anjal – ಅಂಜಲ್ ಮೀನು – pomfret
ಕೇರೆ – kere – ಕೇರೆಹಾವು – rattle snake
ಕಂದೊಡಿ – kandodi – ಕನ್ನಡಿ ಹಾವು – viper
ಪೆರ್ಮರಿ – permari – ಹೆಬ್ಬಾವು – python
ಒಳ್ಳೆ – olle – ನೀರುಹಾವು – water snake

Examples of Fruits/Vegetables:
ಗುಜ್ಜೆ – gujje – ಹಲಸಿನ ಕಾಯಿ – jackfruit but not riped
ಪರಂನ್ಡ್ಹ – parand – ಬಾಳೆಹಣ್ಣು – banana
ಗೋಂಕು – gonku – ಗೇರುಹಣ್ಣು – cashew fruit
ಕುಂಟಲ್ – kuntal – wild berry
ಕುಕ್ಕು – kukku – ಮಾವಿನ ಹಣ್ಣು – mango
ಪದ್ಪೆ – padpe or padipe – ಹರಿವೆ – tender amaranth
ಬಸಲೆ – basale – ಬಸಳೆ – spinach
ತೌತೆ – thouthe – ಸೌತೆಕಾಯಿ – cucumber
ತಿಮರೆ – thimare – ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮಿ – brahmi
ನುರ್ಗೆ – nurge – ನುಗ್ಗೆಕಾಯಿ – drum stick
ಕಂಚಲ – kanchala – ಹಾಗಲಕಾಯಿ – bitter gourd
ತುರೆ – thure – ಸೋರೆಕಾಯಿ – bottle gourd
ಕುಂಬುಡ – kumbuda – ಕುಂಬಳಕಾಯಿ – pumpkin
ಕರ್ಕುಂಬುಡ – karkumbuda – ಬೂದಿಕುಂಬಳ – ash gourd
ಬಚ್ಚಂಗಾಯಿ – bacchankaayi – ಕಲ್ಲಂಗಡಿ ಹಣ್ಣು – water melon
ಚಿತ್ರುಳ್ಳಿ – chitrulli or chitrapuli – ಕಿತ್ತಳೆಹಣ್ಣು – orange
ಪರ್ತಿ ಕಾಯಿ – parthi kai – ಹತ್ತಿ ಕಾಯಿ fig
ಕಾಯಿ ಮುಂಚಿ – kaayi munchi or pajji munchi – ಹಸಿ ಮೆಣಸಿನ ಕಾಯಿ – green chilli

Examples of Places:
ಕಾರ್ಲ – karla – ಕಾರ್ಕಳ – karkal (Karkal is called Karla in Tulu)
ಬೆದ್ರ – bedra – ಮೂಡಬಿದ್ರೆ – moodbidri (Moodbidri is called Bedra in Tulu)
ಕುಡ್ಲ – kudla – ಮಂಗಳೂರು – mangalore (Mangalore is called Kudla in Tulu)
ಭಾರತೋ – bharatho – ಭಾರತ – India

B. Number of Substantives.
Substantives have two numbers(ವಚನ); 1. Singular(ಏಕವಚನ) and 2. Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)

Singular(ಏಕವಚನ) and Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ) Words

All the above words are in singular(ಏಕವಚನ). In Tulu plural(ಬಹುವಚನ) is formed by adding ರ್(ru) or ಲು, ಳು(lu) or ಕುಲು (kulu) suffix to the singular. Here are some examples:

ಬಡವೆ badave(poor) will become ಬಡವೇರ್ badaver(poors) by adding the “ರ್ r” suffix
ಬುದ್ದಿವಂತೆ buddivanthe(intelligent) will become ಬುದ್ದಿವನಥೆರ್ buddivanther(intelligent) by adding the “ರ್ r” suffix
ಬಾಲೆ bale(child) will become ಬಾಲೆಲು (balelu) by adding “ಲು lu” suffix.
ಮೇಜಿ meji(table) will become ಮೇಜಿಲು mejilu(tables) by addling “ಲು lu” suffix.
ಕುರಿ kuri(sheep) will become ಕುರಿಕುಲು kurikulu(sheep) by addling “ಕುಲು kulu” suffix.
ಮರೊ maro(tree) will become ಮರೊಕುಲು marokulu(trees) by adding “ಕುಲು kulu” suffix.

Plural Substantives(ಬಹುವಚನ ನಾಮವಾಚಕ) of relationship terminate in lu. For example:
ammadlu – fathers
maamilu – aunts

When the cardinal numbers are used in reference to persons, the word jana may be added to onji (one), and word jana to all the other numbers. Thus it will become onji jana (oner person), radd jana (two person) and moon jana (three person).

Declension of Substantives

Substantives have 8 Cases viz: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Locative, Ablative or Instrumental, Communicative and Vocative. Of these the Nominative singular is the same as the crude form of the word; the formation of the Nominative plural has been explained in the preceding paragraph, the remaining cases are formed by adding affixes to the Nominative.

Table of Substantives(ನಾಮವಾಚಕ) Cases with Affixes and Singular/Plural

  Affixes       
Casesವಿಭಕ್ತಿ ಪ್ರತ್ಯಯTulu Singular AffixTransliterationSingular Example in KannadaSingular Example in TuluTulu Plural AffixTransliterationPlural Example in KannadaPlural Example Tulu
Naanu padada Vibhakthi RoopagaLu (ನಾನು ಪದದ ವಿಭಕ್ತಿ ರೂಪಗಳು)
Nominativeಪ್ರಥಮಅ a, ಉ u, ಏ enaanuನಾನುಯಾನ್ru, lu, kulunaavuನಾವುಯೆನ್ಕುಲು
Genitiveದ್ವಿತೀಯಅ a, ತ ta, ದ danannannuನನ್ನನ್ನುಯನನ್re, lenammannuನಮ್ಮನ್ನುಯೆನ್ಕ್ಲೆನ್
Dativeತೃತೀಯdd, dudunannindaನನ್ನಿಂದಯನಡ್ದ್re, regnammindaನಮ್ಮಿಂದಯೆನ್ಕ್ಲೆಡ್ದ್
Accusativeಚತುರ್ಥಿn, nunanageನನಗೆಯೆನ್ಕ್re, lennamageನಮಗೆಯೆಂಕ್ಲೆಗ್
Locativeಪಂಚಮಿdu, t, tu, dunanna deseyindaನನ್ನ ದೆಸೆಯಿಂದಯೆನ್ನ ದಿಸೆಡ್ಡ್led, ledunamma deseyindaನಮ್ಮ ದೆಸೆಯಿಂದಯೆಂಕಲೆನ ದಿಸೆಡ್ದ್
Ablative or Instrumentalಷಷ್ಟಿg, k, gu, kunannaನನ್ನಯೆನ್ನleDdnammaನಮ್ಮಯೆನ್ಕ್ಲೆನ
Communicativeಸಪ್ತಮಿda, tanannalliನನ್ನಲ್ಲಿಯೆನಡledanammalliನಮ್ಮಲ್ಲಿಎಂಕ್ಲೇಡ
Vocativeaa, oonaanere, lenaave
Neenu padada Vibhakthi RoopagaLu (ನೀನು ಪದದ ವಿಭಕ್ತಿ ರೂಪಗಳು)
Nominativeಪ್ರಥಮನೀನುನೀವುನಿಕುಲು
Genitiveದ್ವಿತೀಯನಿನ್ನನ್ನುನಿನನ್ನಿಮ್ಮನ್ನುನಿಕುಲೆನ್
Dativeತೃತೀಯನಿನ್ನಿಂದನಿನಡ್ದ್ನಿಮ್ಮಿಂದನಿಕುಲೆಡ್ದ್
Accusativeಚತುರ್ಥಿನಿನಗೆನಿಕ್ಕ್ನಿಮಗೆನಿಕುಲೆಗ್
Locativeಪಂಚಮಿನಿನ್ನ ದೆಸೆಯಿಂದನಿನ್ನ ದಿಸೆಡ್ಡ್ನಿಮ್ಮ ದೆಸೆಯಿಂದನಿಕುಲೆನ ದಿಸೆಡ್ದ್
Ablative or Instrumentalಷಷ್ಟಿನಿನ್ನನಿನ್ನನಿಮ್ಮನಿಕುಲೆನ
Communicativeಸಪ್ತಮಿನಿನ್ನಲ್ಲಿನಿನಡನಿಮ್ಮಲ್ಲಿನಿಕುಲೆಡ
Vocative

There are 5 declensions or modes of forming the cases of substantives by adding the above-mentioned affixes,
varying principally according to the termination of words in their crude form. They are therefore conveniently termed as
1. declension in ಅ, a
2. declension in ಇ, i
3. declension in ಉ, u
4. declension in ಎ, e
5. declension in ಡು, du

Example 1: Personal Noun (ವೈಯಕ್ತಿಕ ನಾಮಪದ) – Rama

1. Nominative – ರಾಮ – rama
2. Genitive – ರಾಮನ – ramana
3. Dative – ರಾಮಾಗ್ – ramag
4. Accusative – ರಾಮನ್ – raman
5. Locative – ರಾಮಡ್ – ramaD
6. Ablative or Instrumental – ರಾಮಡ್ದ್ – ramadD
7. Communicative – ರಾಮಡ – ramaDa
8. Vocative – ರಾಮಾ – ramaa !

Example 2: Impersonal Noun (ನಿರಾಕಾರ ನಾಮಪದ) – Jeeva

1. Nominative – ಜೀವ – jeeva
2. Genitive – ಜೀವನ – jeevaDa
3. Dative – ಜೀವೊಗು – jeevogu
4. Accusative – ಜೀವೊನು – jeevonu
5. Locative – ಜೀವೊಡು – jeevoDu
6. Ablative or Instrumental – ರಾಮಡ್ದ್ – jeevoDdu
7. Communicative – ರಾಮಡ – jeevaDa
8. Vocative – ರಾಮಾ – jeevaa !

Adjectives in Tulu – ಗುಣವಾಚಕಗಳು

There are very few Simple Adjectives in the Tulu language. This defect can be fixed by turning Substantives into Adjectives by affixing to them the participles of the Auxiliary Verbs. For example ಆಪಿನಿ (aapaini) to become ಆದುಪ್ಪುನಿ (aduppuni, to have become).

Examples of Simple Adjectives:
ಪೊಸ – posa – new
ಪೊಸಕುಂಟು – posakuntu – new cloth
ಪೊರ್ಲು – porlu – beautiful
ಪೊರ್ಲುಬಾಲೆ – porlubaale – a beautiful child
ಎಡ್ಡೆ – yedde – good
ಎಡ್ಡೆಬಾಲೆ yeddebaale – a good child or an adorable child

Negative Adjectives – ನಕಾರಾತ್ಮಕ ಗುಣವಾಚಕಗಳು: ಗತಿ ದಾಂತಿ ನರಮಾನಿ – ಗತಿ ಇಲ್ಲದ ಮನುಷ್ಯ – gati danti naramaani, a helpless man.
The adjective such as ಕಿನ್ನಿ – ಮರಿ – kinni, is also used substantively signifying a young
For example: 1. ಆನೆದ ಕಿನ್ನಿ – ಆನೆಮರಿ aneda kinni – the young elephant and 2. ಕೋರಿದ ಕಿನ್ನಿ – ಕೋಳಿಮರಿ – korida kinni – a chicken

Comparison of Adjectives

There is nothing in Tulu corresponding to the English terminations er and est (more and most} by which adjectives could be compared. Comparison is generally expressed by construing the adjective with a noun in the ablative case
For example:
1. ಮೂಕುಳೆಡ್ದ್ ಅಕುಲು ಬಿರ್ಸೆರ್ – Those people are more shrewd than these people
2. ಇಂಬೆ ಮಾತೇರೆಡ್ಲ ಮಲ್ಲ ಕಲ್ವೆ – imbe materedla mall kale – he is the biggest thief of all.

Comparison may also be expressed by the dative and locative cases.
For example:
1. ಎನ್ನ ಇಲ್ಲಡ್ದ್ ನಿನ್ನ ಇಲ್ಲ್ ಮಲ್ಲೆ – yenna illaDd nina ill malle – your house is bigger than mine
2. ಮಾತಾ ಇಲ್ಲಡ್ದ್ ನಿನ್ನ ಇಲ್ಲ್ ಮಲ್ಲೆ – mata illaDd nina ill malle – your housee is the largest of all.

Adverbs in Tulu – ಕ್ರಿಯಾವಿಶೇಷಣಗಳು

Adverbs, like adjectives, are of two kinds: Simple and Periphrastic.
Examples of Simple Adverbs in Tulu:
ini – today
yelle – tomorrow
kode – yesterday
kaande – morning
bayyag – evening
pokkade – in vain
petitge – immediately
alakka – immediately
kuda or kudala – again
sorta – straightly
vore – crookedly
adimel – turned upside down
kankane – lay down with face down
marankane – lay down with face up

Examples of Periphrastic Adverbs:
Periphrastic Adverbs are very freely formed by affixing adu, (aapini) (a negative particle) to Substantives and Adjectives.

Examples of Periphrastic Adverbs in Tulu:
santosa – gladness – santosa aad – gladly
porlu – porlu aad – beautifully
samaadhaana – peace – samaadhaana aad – peacefully
gutt – secret – gutt aad – secretly
sarta – straight – sorta aad – straightly
sama – proper – sama aad – properly
gati daante – helplessly

Some Adverbs are declined like nouns in the singular number.

Pronouns in Tulu

Pronouns, like nouns, are of three kinds in Tulu similar to English

1. Substantive 2. Adjective and 3. Adverbial.

Substantive Pronouns – ನಾಮವಾಚಕ ಸರ್ವನಾಮಗಳು

Substantive Pronouns are either Personal, Reflexive, Demonstrative, Interrogative or Indefinite.

The subject of a sentence is a person or thing that performs the action of the verb. Subject pronouns are used to replace the subject (person or thing) of a verb. We do NOT normally say:

John is tall and John is intelligent. Saying the word “John” twice is repetitive and does not sound natural.

We replace the Subject (John) that appears the second time with a subject pronoun to avoid repetition (and in this case to avoid saying the name John again.)

So we would say:
John is tall and he is intelligent. We replace the second “John” with the Subject Pronoun “He”.

These are the subjective pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they.

Personal Pronounce in English

subject_object

Examples of Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns in Tulu

 Singular(ಏಕವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)  
First Person
yAn - ನಾನು - I1.nama - ನಾವು - we 2.enkulu - ನಾವು - we
Second Person
ee - ನೀನು - younikulu - ನೀವು - you
Third Person
Gender(ಲಿಂಗ)Proximate (ಹತ್ತಿರ)Remote (ದೂರ)Proximate (ಹತ್ತಿರ)Remote (ದೂರ)
Masculine (ಪುಲ್ಲಿಂಗ)imbe - ಇವನು - HeAye - ಅವನು - Hemokulu - ಇವರು- Theyakulu - ಅವರು - They
Feminine(ಸ್ತ್ರೀಲಿಂಗ)mOlu/imbal - ಇವಳು - SheAl - ಅವಳು - She
Neuter(ನಪುಂಸಕಲಿಂಗ)undu/indu - ಇದು - Thisau - ಅದು - Itundekulu - ಇವುಗಳು - Theyavkulu - ಅವುಗಳು - They
yAn - I
CasesSingular(ಏಕವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)
NominativeyAn - Inamaenkulu
Accusativeenan - menamanenklen
Ablative or InstrumentalenaDd – from/by menamaDdenkleDd
Dativeenk - to menank, namakenkleg
Genetiveenna - mynamana, nammaenklena
LocativeenaD – in menamaDenkleD
CommunicativeeNDa – to/with menamaDaenkleDa
ee - You
CasesSingular(ಏಕವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)
NominativeInikuluIr
Accusativeninannikleniren
Ablative or InstrumentalninaDdnikleDdireDd
Dativenikkniklegireg
Genitiveninnaniklenairena
LocativeninaDnikleDireD
CommunicativeniNDanikleDaireDa
imbe & mOlu - He & She
CasesSingular(ಏಕವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)
MasculineFeminie
NominativeimbemOlumokulumEr
Accusativeimbenmolenmoklenmeren
Ablative or InstrumentalimbeDdmoleDdmokleDdmereDd
Dativeimbegmolegmoklegmereg
Genitiveimbenamolenamoklenamerena
LocativeimbeDmoleDmokleDmereD
CommunicativeimbeDamoleDamokleDamereDa
Aye & Al – He & She (Remote)
CasesSingular(ಏಕವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)
MasculineFeminine
NominativeAyeAlakuluAr
AccusativeAyenalenaklenaren
Ablative or InstrumentalAyeDdaleDdakleDdareDd
DativeAyegalegaklegareg
GenitiveAyenaalenaaklenaarena
LocativeAyeDaleDdakleDareD
CommunicativeAyeDaaleDaakleDaareDa
undu and au – This and That/It
CasesSingular(ಏಕವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)Plural(ಬಹುವಚನ)
ProximateRemoteProximateRemote
Nominativeunduauundekuluaikulu
Accusativeunden/nEnaven/ainundeklenaiklen
Ablative or InstrumentalundeDd/nEDdaiDdundekleDdaikleDd
Dativeundek/nekkaikundeklegaikleg
Genitiveundeta/nettaaitaundeklenaaiklena
LocativeundeT/neTTaiTundekleDaikleD
CommunicativeundeTa/neTTaaiTaundekleDaaikleDa

Reflective Pronouns – ಪ್ರತಿಸ್ಪಂದಿತ ಸರ್ವನಾಮಗಳು

Singular: tanu, himself, herself itself
Plural: tankul, themselves

1. This Pronoun is used with reference to some other Noun or Pronoun of the third person preceding it.
2. The plural is used honorifically in the second person singular in the sense of “your honor”, “your lordship”, etc. when speaking to a person of rank.

Interrogative Pronouns – ಪ್ರಶ್ನಾರ್ಥಕ ಸರ್ವನಾಮಗಳು

ಏರ್ – yer – who?
ದಾನೆ – daane – what?
ದಾದ – dada – what?
ದಾದವು – daadavu – what?
ದಾನ್ವ – daanva – what do you do?
ದಾದಮ್ಬೆ – daadambe – whatsup

Indefinite Pronouns- ಅನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ರ್ವನಾಮಗಳು

ಒರಿ – ori- one man
ಒರ್ತಿ – orti – one woman
ಒಂಜಿ- onji – one thing
ಏರ್ಲಾ – yerla – any
ಎರಾಂಡ್ಲ – yerandaala – anyone

Adjective Pronouns – ವಿಶೇಷಣ ಸರ್ವನಾಮಗಳು

In general adjectives are words which describe or modify another person or object in a given sentence. For example: a beautiful flower the adjective is [beautiful] because it describes the noun [flower]. The following examples use adjectives in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.
[supsystic-tables id=’18’]

Adjective pronouns are 1. Demonstrative 2. Interrogative or 3. Indefinite.

1. Demonstrative – ಪ್ರದರ್ಶನಾತ್ಮಕ:
[supsystic-tables id=’15’]

2. Interrogative – ಪ್ರಶ್ನಾರ್ಥಕ:
ಓವು – vovu (which?), ಏತ್ – yeth(how much? or how many ?), ಎಂಚ – yencha(how?), ಎಂಚಿಟ್ತಿ – yenchitti (what?)

3. Indefinites – ಅನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ:
ಒರಿ – ori – a male, or a man
ಒರ್ತಿ – orti – a female or a woman
ಒಂಜಿ – onji – a, or one
ಒಂತೆ – onte – little
ಕಮ್ಮಿ – kammi – little
ಪಾಕ – paaka – many, a lot
ದಿಂಜ – dinja – plenty, much
ಮಸ್ತ್ – masth – plenty
ಕಡೆಸ – kadesa – late
ಎಚ್ಚ – yettcha – much
ಜಾಸ್ತಿ – jaasthi – much

Adverbial Pronouns – ಕ್ರಿಯಾತ್ಮಕ ಸರ್ವನಾಮಗಳು

Adverbial Pronouns are either 1. Demonstrative 2. Interrogative or 3. Indefinite.

1. Demonstrative Adverbial Pronouns – ಪ್ರದರ್ಶನಾತ್ಮಕ ಕ್ರಿಯಾಪದ:
[supsystic-tables id=’16’]

2. Interrogative Adverbial Pronouns – ಪ್ರಶ್ನಾರ್ಥಕ ಕ್ರಿಯಾಪದ:
[supsystic-tables id=’17’]

3. Indefinite Adverbial Pronouns – ಅನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ಕ್ರಿಯಾಪದ:
[supsystic-tables id=’19’]

Numeral in Tulu – ತುಳು ಅಂಕಿಗಳು

In Tulu numerals too are, like Nouns and Pronouns, of three kinds. 1. Substantive 2. Adjective and 3. Adverbial.

Substantive Numerals

ಒರಿ – ori – one (man), ಒರ್ತಿ – orti – one (woman), ಒಂಜಿ – onji – one (thing) are examples of substantive numerals.

ಇರ್ವೆರ್- irver – two persons
ಮೂವೇರ್- moover – three persons
ನಾಲ್ವೇರ್- naalver – four persons
ಐವೇರ್- eiver – five persons
ಆರ್ವೇರ್ – aarver – six persons
ಎಲ್ವೇರ್ – Yelver – seven persons

From 8 and up ಮಂದಿ, ‘mandi’ or ಜನ, ‘jana’ will be used. For example: yenma jana, ormba mandi, part jana… etc

Adjective Numerals

Adjectives are those words which describe nouns or pronouns. Numeral Adjectives also known as Adjectives of numbers are one among seven types of Adjectives. Numeral Adjectives are those adjectives which are used to denote the number of nouns or the order in which they stand. They are also commonly called Adjectives of Number.

In simpler terms we can say that Adjective of numbers tell us the number of people or things and maintain clarity by giving exact information.

One, two, five, ten, first, second, third, tenth, twelfth, last, all, some, few, each, most, many, no, several are common examples of numeral adjectives.

[supsystic-tables id=’13’]

Ordinal Numbers

An Ordinal Number is a number that tells the position of something in a list, such as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th etc.
[supsystic-tables id=’19’]

Adverbail Numbers

A word that expresses a countable number of times; an adverbial numeral.
“Twice” is an adverbial number, while “two” is a cardinal number. Similarly in Tulu “Ora” os an adverbial number, while “onji” is a cardinal number.

Examples:
1. ಒಂಜಿ ಸರ್ತಿ – onji sarthi – once
2. ರಡ್ದ್ ಸರ್ತಿ – rädd sarahi – twice
3. ಮೂಜಿ ಸರ್ತಿ – mooji sarthi – thrice

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