Learn Tulu Grammar – Alphabet

Tulu Alphabet

There are 14 Vowels (ಸ್ವರಗಳು), 2 Medials(ಯೋಗವಾಹಕಗಳು – Anuswara and Visarga) and 34 Consonants(ವ್ಯಂಜನಗಳು) in Tulu alphabet

Tulu Vowels – ಸ್ವರಗಳು

Tulu Vowels are either short or long, or diphthongal or indefinite.

There are 6 Short Vowels – ಹ್ರಸ್ವಸ್ವರಗಳು:
ಅ – a
ಇ – i
ಉ – u
ಋ – ri
ಎ – e
ಒ – o

tulu-short-vowels

There are 4 Long Vowels – ದೀರ್ಘ ಸ್ವರಗಳು:
ಆ – A
ಈ – I
ಊ – O
ಋ – Ri
ಏ – E1
ಓ – O1

Note1: As per Tulu Academy there are no letters for E(ಏ) and O(ಓ) in Tulu

tulu-long-vowels-updated

There are 2 Diphthongal:
ಐ – ai
ಔ – ou

tulu-diphthongal

There are 2 Medials – ಯೋಗವಾಹಕಗಳು:
These are sounded m, n, according to position, and aha
ಅ೦ – am – ಅನುಸ್ವಾರ
ಅಃ – aha – ವಿಸರ್ಗ

Tulu Consonants – ವ್ಯಂಜನಗಳು

Classified(ವರ್ಗೀಯ) and Unclassified(ಅವರ್ಗೀಯ) Consonants (ವ್ಯಂಜನಗಳು):

There are 25 classified and 9 unclassified Consonants. Fourteen Consonants are pronounced like the English letters by which they are represented:

consonent1

The following fourteen Consonants are pronounced like the English letters by which they are represented:

consonent2

a, ga, cha, ja, pa, ba, ma, ya, ra, la, va, and sha, sa, ha
ಕ, ಗ, ಚ, ಜ, ಪ, ಬ, ಮ, ಯ, ರ, ಲ, ವ, ಶ, ಸ, ಹ

The remaining Consonants do not correspond to the letters of the English alphabet. The following are dental letters; they must be pronounced with the tip of the tongue between the front teeth:

consonent3

ta, tha, da, dha, na
ತ, ಥ, ದ, ಧ, ನ

The following are cerebral letters:

consonent4

ta, Tha, da, Dha, Na; sha, La
ಟ, ಠ, ಡ, ಢ, ಣ, ಷ, ಳ

Tulu Conjoins – ತುಳು ಒತ್ತಕ್ಷರಗಳು

In two ways Tulu Conjoins can be written
1. One origin letter is written below with the same origin letter or some other origin letter

Here are the examples:
tulu-conjoin1

2. One origin letter is combined with the same origin letter or some other origin letter

Here are the examples:
tulu-conjoin2

3. Words with nasal sound are written in two ways

Here are the examples:
tulu-conjoin3

ಕನ್ನಡ, ತುಳು ಗುಣಿತಾಕ್ಷರಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಸಂಯುಕ್ತಾಕ್ಷರಗಳು

In this section we’ll see how the vowels and consonants mix to form words. But first let’s see how this happens in the English language. This will hopefully help us get a better understanding of Kannada.

In English, there are are just 5 vowels. So special rules are needed to sound the short vowel and long vowel. For example, the U makes the short vowel sound in the word cut and makes the long vowel sound in the word cute. The special rule here is that when the word ends in the letter “e”, the vowel preceding it makes the long vowel sound.

The most important thing to remember when blending consonants with vowels in Kannada is that the consonant undergoes a slight change in the script. This is unlike English. For example, ಕ್ + ಅ = ಕ. (sound C makes + sound U makes = sound Cu makes, as in Cut).

ಕನ್ನಡ ಗುಣಿತಾಕ್ಷರಗಳು

In Kannada ವ್ಯಂಜನಕ್ಕೆ ಸ್ವರ ಸೇರಿದಾಗ ಗುಣಿತಾಕ್ಷರವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.

[ವ್ಯಂಜನ + ಸ್ವರ = ಗುಣಿತಾಕ್ಷರ]

ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ:- ಕ್ ವ್ಯಂಜನಕ್ಕೆ ಬೇರೆ ಬೇರೆ ಸ್ವರಗಳನ್ನು ಸೇರಿಸೋಣ.

ಕ್ + ಅ = ಕ
ಕ್ + ಆ = ಕಾ
ಕ್ + ಇ = ಕಿ
ಕ್ + ಈ = ಕೀ
ಕ್ + ಋ = ಕೃ
ಕ್ + ಎ = ಕೆ
ಕ್ + ಏ = ಕೇ
ಕ್ + ಐ = ಕೈ
ಕ್ + ಒ = ಕೊ
ಕ್ + ಓ = ಕೋ
ಕ್ + ಔ = ಕೌ
ಕ್ + ಅ0 = ಕಂ
ಕ್ + ಅಃ = ಕಃ

ತುಳು ಗುಣಿತಾಕ್ಷರಗಳು

It is same concept in Tulu too. ವ್ಯಂಜನಕ್ಕೆ ಸ್ವರ ಸೇರಿದಾಗ ಗುಣಿತಾಕ್ಷರವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.

[ವ್ಯಂಜನ + ಸ್ವರ = ಗುಣಿತಾಕ್ಷರ]

For ex:
ಕ್ + ಅ = ಕ
ಕ್ + ಆ = ಕಾ

tulu_vowels_consonants

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